Stem Cells Cure for Brain Injury: A Novel Method to Cure Brain Trauma

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Stem Cells Cure for Brain Injury: A Novel Method to Cure Brain Trauma

   

Prithiv K R Kumar1* and Albert Alukal2

1Director, Principle Scientist- Poichyadical Stem Cell Centre for Research and Development (POSCERD)Chicago, CEO- La'zer Health Care, Chicago, USA

2Chief Medical Officer- La'zer Healthcare, Chicago, USA

*Corresponding author: Prithiv K R Kumar, Director, Principle Scientist-Poichyadical Stem Cell Centre for Research and Development (POSCERD) Chicago, CEO- La’zer Health Care, Chicago, USA

Citation: Kumar PKR, Alukal A. (2020) Stem Cells Cure for Brain Injury: A Novel Method to Cure Brain Trauma. J Stem Cell Res. 1(1):1-11.

Received: May 14, 2020, | Published: June 01, 2020

Copyright© 2020 by Kumar PKR. All rights reserved. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

DOI:  https://doi.org/10.52793/JSCR.2020.1(1)-02

Abstract

Brain injury has been a major problem to cure, because of its complications in its nerve and cells surrounding it. They pose problem in finding relevant treatment. The complications ensure no effective improvement in neural structure cells and functional recovery of cells. Brain injury is usually lose of white matter, atrophy, neurological impairment. It may cause focal loss, hearing impairment and also loss of sense. These are hallmark brain injury with no cure in sight. Hence stem cells forms highly effective method for cure of major injury in brain. This chapter will discuss exclusively on stem cells and its effect on brain injury.

Keywords

Neural stem cells; Traumatic brain injury; Parkinsons disease

Introduction

Brain injury is a worldwide catastrophe. It remains global health problem with limited treatment options. Figure 1 shows parts of brain [1]. The brain consists of cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Many injuries occur in brain. Disorders such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, Parkinson’s disease are frequent occurrence in many patients. These disorders pose health issues and succumb to economic liability to an individual [2]. With very limited therapeutic options, hope of sustainable treatment is an issue in research for gene therapy and other novel approaches. Hence an emphasis is placed on stem cell research for spearheading the field of regenerative medicine [3].

Figure 1: Parts of brain.

This therapy promises a future of neuroregenerative capabilities. They help initiating clinical research ethodologies, potential cure combinations along with ethical procedures from table to in vitro. Below figure shows the percentage of brain injury caused in human [3].

Neural Stem Cells

There are two methods for modulating neural stem cells, one exogenous and another endogenous neural stem cells [4]. Recent study reveals the existence of multipotent neural stem cells in certain regions of brain. They help in generating glia cells (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Leading causes of TBI.

Further research suggests, the endogenous and exogenous cells play regenerative roles in tune with the central nervous system. Below figure shows grafting neural stem cells in brain [5] (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Grafting neural stem cells in brain.

In heightened response to these therapies, cell proliferation and neurogenesis has been an highlight. This also suggests that brain has responded to trauma and restored the damaged part [6]. This success in treatment has urged scientists to further their research in traumatic injuries such as Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases [7].

The potential of the transplanted cells is to differentiate into regional specific cells and also to combine with host tissue to replace cells in the injured sites. Alternatively they also provide neurotransmitters to facilitate the host tissue for regeneration. (Figure 4) shows neural stem cells transplantation [8].

Figure 4: Neural stem cells transplantation.

Brain Injury Therapy

 

Systematic review in treatments and results, yields potential treatments in diminished sites of brain cells [9].Therapies combining stem cell transplants have produced amicable solutions and also helped in combination of drugs to take part in effective cure to damaged brain cells [10]. Brain injury generally opens up to research of therapeutics. Specific hormones have functions that benefit cells when combined with stem cells. Various central nervous system disorders are penchant to anti-inflammatory effects. They also encourage the proliferation of progenitor cells and improve traumatic brain injury (Figure 5).

Figure 5: This indicates working of progenitor cells (glia) in repairing brain injury [11].

Endogenous- Exogenous Endothelial Progenitor Cells

Neuroregeneration promotes progenitor cells for repair of brain cells. In vitro model of testing, rats were injected with endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), results show they expressed enhanced vessel density, occulin expression, reduced edema and increased blood brain barrier integrity [12]. Moreover the progesterone present in barrier reverses integrity as they form facilitator of EPC for brain repair. To further this theory another set of experiments were conducted, results prevailed [13]. Combine together these experiments indicate progesterone help in stimulating regeneration of stem cells in brain injury for cure. Below graph shows different studies in brain injury [14]. Various levels of brain injury and age category [15].