Neural Stem cells: Several Methodology in Regenerative Medicine to Cure Brain Injury

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Neural Stem cells: Several Methodology in Regenerative Medicine to Cure Brain Injury

   

Prithiv K R Kumar*

Director, Principle Scientist- Poichyadical Stem Cell Centre for Research and Development (POSCERD) Chicago, CEO- Lazer Health Care, Chicago, USA

*Corresponding author: Prithiv K R Kumar, Director, Principle Scientist-Poichyadical Stem Cell Centre for Research and Development (POSCERD) Chicago, CEO- Lazer Health Care, Chicago, USA

Citation: Kumar PKR. (2020) Neural Stem cells: Several Methodology in Regenerative Medicine to Cure Brain Injury. J Stem Cell Res. 1(1):1-13.

Received Date: May 23, 2020, | Published Date: June 10, 2020

Copyright© 2020 by Kumar PKR. All rights reserved. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

The specific set of cells from stem cells is a scientific miracle. These stem cells help in rebuilding damaged and diseased tissues, and also help in formation of any type of cells. One type of stem cell called Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has the ability to differentiate into non lineage cells namely glia and neural stem cells. Several research indicates neural mechanism for neuroglia has its specification. These neural mechanism show interconnected components of cell signalling. Furthermore they highlight the signalling pathways inside neurons. Most dependent cells of these pathways are ligands and cellular architecture flowing on these ligands. The limit to understanding this architecture ends with neurosphere, spheroid structure and organoids. Sometimes injuries in brain are devastating and there is no cure in sight. The symptoms also show complications in neural regeneration. Local environment factors effects loss of neurons. This review focuses more on therapeutic solutions to cure damaged neurons and give more attention to glial cells. The regeneration of stem cells in its various forms are now put to effective use for both neuroglia and neuronal replacements.

Keywords

Glial cells; Neural stem cells; Nerve cells

Introduction

Glial cells are present in large numbers in the central nervous system (CNS), they help in maintaining balance, forming myelin, and provides support and protection to neurons. There has been a significant progress in glial formation and repair, stem cells provides valuable solution to the problem [1] (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Shows the glial cells structure during activation [2].

There are three different types of glial cells. The astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia [3] (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Shows the glial cells and its types [3].

It is important to understand glial cells in order to solve the neurological disease [4]. MSCs have potential ability to help in neural cells formation. But majority of tests have proved iHPSC (induced human pleuripotent stem cells ) have the capacity to generate glial cells and neural stem cells [5]. Neurons have unique characteristics to communicate via chemical synapsis. Glial cells clean up after this mess, the task peculiar to the star shaped astrocytes [6]. Glial cells thereafter communicate through non lineage cells, called synaptic communication. The components of synaptic cells form the target organ in the periphery such as muscle cells and glial part[7]. The glial part forms the entire synapse involving perineural nets which is densely arranged extracellular matrix firmly holding the synapse. There is consistence in the multiple role of glial cells, thus increasing in number of these cells outnumbering neurons. They also act as oligodendrite progenitor cells in brain cells proliferation[8]. This is the immature step of neural generation. Why it is called immature is because of one sided support to progenitor cells division. The cell NG2 glia has three purpose, one to hold the progenitors and others synapsis. An intriguing question is, the pro-genesis is remodelling of synaptic connections of glia that contributes to the performance of astrocytes in formation of nerve cells [9] (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Shows glia cells and its division into neural cells [10].

This review has lot of queries answered on role of glial cells in development of brain, glial cells act as progenitor, evidence of radial glia cells, glial cells and CNS and emergence of progenitors [11].

Stem Cells Prominence

The most prominent role of glial cells is structure maintanance and bonding. The term nerve cement was promulgated a century ago and neuroglia arrived from that. Glial cells play almost all the role in brain including CNS functions, development, injury and curing diseases [12]. With knowledge of glial cell types, NG2-glia or polydendrocytes had been identified as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In addition there are few other glia cells such as Muller glia in retina and Bergmann glia in cerebellum [13] (Figure 4). Several studies have suggested that human neurogenesis is different from rodent [14]. Due to differences in neuroanatomy, profound results are inadequate to cure human cells. Hence the concept called iHPSC was discovered. Induced Human pluripotent stem(iHPSC) cells is an in-vitro success in curing brain injury[15]. It has been a valuable tool for modelling diseases, mapping development of CNS and treasuring the CNS cures. iHPSCs were derived from transcriptional factors of cells. They can be obtained in large numbers from human blood cells, skin fibroblasts and somatic cells [16].