Glial Cells Form an Integral Part of Nerve Cells Regeneration: Stem Cells End up Glia to Give Life to Nerve Damage
Prithiv K R Kumar1* and Albert Alukal2
1Director, Principle Scientist- Poichyadical Stem Cell Centre for Research and Development (POSCERD)Chicago, CEO- La'zer Health Care, Chicago, USA
2Chief Medical Officer- La'zer Healthcare, Chicago, USA
*Corresponding author: Prithiv K R Kumar, Director, Principle Scientist-Poichyadical Stem Cell Centre for Research and Development (POSCERD) Chicago, CEO- Lazer Health Care, Chicago, USA
Citation: Kumar PKR, Alukal A. (2020) Glial Cells Form an Integral Part of Nerve Cells Regeneration: Stem Cells End up Glia to Give Life to Nerve Damage. J Stem Cell Res. 1(1):1-14.
Received: June 06, 2020, | Published: June 25, 2020
Copyright© 2020 by Kumar PKR. All rights reserved. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Glia is defined as non neuronal cells with support functions, also known for supporting neurons and maintaining stability and overall infrastructure of nervous system. Reflection of such roles forms adequate base for allocation of certain subtypes. First type is astrocytes which is star shaped, containing ion and highly branched microglia for performance of phagocytes and defence. Two other cells such as oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells both in Central Nervous System (CNS), and peripheral nervous system form the myelin sheet. And the latest addition to the club is the NG2-glia dispersed through CNS parenchyma.
Glial cells; Neural stem cells; Nerve cells
Neurons are considered the maps of brain. Their ability to communicate and generate actions in brain is regarded best for stabilisation. Glial cells often end up cleaning by removing excessive ions . Even the transmitters are cleansed by astrocytes. In Central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) Schwann cells are tasked to do that. But there is a different perspective in approach of glial cells. They serve in communication of synapsis, which contains two neuronal elements to send and receive synapsis. Another glia called NG2- glia which helps in forming the Perineuronal nets (PNN). These PNNs form extracellular DNA matrix which stabilizes the synapsis. An overall Schwann cell protects the entire synapse. Since the synapses are closed knit process and play important in communication and remodeling nerves, their number usually increases in brain with higher complexity  ( Figure 1).
Figure 1: Shows the glial cells in CNS and PNS .
At a point of neuronal axis, glia and neurons have crossed each other. This particular moment specific glial cells and NG2 undergoes synaptic process and directs axons to various brain region including corpus callosum. Glial cells further intimidate oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to regenerate and proliferate in corpus callosum. Many NG2 are found in order to balance synaptic communication and progenitor cells division . As this process continues, several questions arise about synaptic communication, astrocytes performing stem cells function after injury. In this review these questions can be addressed. A stage will be set for central issues of glial functions, providing new insights to scar formation after injury and how glial cells plays a role in heterogeneity and nerve formation  (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Shows neuroglia .
Glial Cells Origin and its Types
First glia to appear is radical glia or radical glial cells. They are seen all over brain. Radical glia develops neuro epithelial cells responsible for the formation of neural cells and neural tubes .
The differentiation of radial glial cells from neuroepithelial cells, acquires protein expression, transporters, synthase and granules. The expression namely vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, transporter is astrocyte specific or GLAST, glutamine synthase and glycogen granules and filaments  (Figure 3). With the help of above combined process tools, radial glial cells expand several millimetres inside the cerebral cortex. It happens when brain thickens during development. The growth helps in stability or rather acts as function of support for radial glial cells and guidance to migrant neurons. This is an important role because migrant neurons may get disordered or mutated affecting them to causing neuronal dysplasia . Enhancing the further research, glial have three types of cells. They are named astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Differing in origin, even markers and physiological functions and subtypes have allotted place in each type .