MRONJ: Stage 3, the Best Moment to Develop Surgery Techniques

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MRONJ: Stage 3, the Best Moment to Develop Surgery Techniques

   

Eduardo Rey1*, Rodriguez Genta2 and Picardo Silvana Noemi3

1President of the National Academy of Dentistry; Consultant to the National Academy of Medicine; Former Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery I and II School of Dentistry University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

2Head of Practical Works Chair in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery II School of Dentistry University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

3Head of Practical Works Chair in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery II School of Dentistry University of Buenos Aires and Department of Dentistry Favaloro Foundation University Hospital, Argentina

*Corresponding author: Eduardo Rey, President of the National Academy of Dentistry; Consultant to the National Academy of Medicine; Former Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery I and II School of Dentistry University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Citation: Rey E, Genta R, Silvana Noemi P. (2020) MRONJ: Stage 3, the Best Moment to Develop Surgery Techniques. J Oral Med and Dent Res. 1(2):1-6.

Received: Aug 04, 2020 | Published: Sep 16,  2020

Copyright© 2020 by Rey E, et al. All rights reserved. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Abstract

Antiresorptives (bisphosphonates: BPs, denosumab: DS)induce a marked inhibition of bone resorption. Low concentrations are used to treat osteoporosis (OP) or other metabolic bone diseases including osteopenia. Besides, high concentrations are primarily used as an effective treatment in the management of cancer-related disorders, including hypercalcemia of malignant and skeletal-related events associated with bone metastases. MRONJ (Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw) is one of the most serious therapy complications with such drugs. In this regard, although the pathogenesis of MRONJ is not understood yet, several papers suggest that antiresorptives may play a role in its development [1].

According to the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS, 2014), MRONJ is defined as exposed or necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region that has persisted for more than 8 weeks in association with 

current or previous BPs or DS therapy and with a lack of head and neck radiotherapy.  AAOMS divided the MRONJ into 4 stages from 0 to 3, according to the clinical and radiological aspect of the osteonecrotic lesion: stage 0: Osteonecrotic lesion without sign-pathognomonic evidence of osteonecrosis: stage 1: osteonecrotic lesion with clinical signs and absence of clinical symptoms; Stage 2: Osteonecrotic lesion with sign and evident clinical symptoms; Stage 3: Osteonecrotic lesion with signs and evident symptoms that involve noble structures: pathological fractures, anesthesia of the lower dental nerve, oral-nasal communication, oral-sinus communication, skin fistulas [2].

The most important drug-risk factors for developing MRONJ appear to be the potency of the drug, its cumulative dose and the local-risk factors related to several dento-alveolar interventions [3].

 

 

Keywords

Antiresorptives (AR); Bisphosphonates (BPs); Denosumab (DS); Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ)

 

Clinical Cases

Osteoporotic patient

Male patient, 72 years old, from Buenos Aires (Argentina), osteoporotic, hypertensive, under treatment with Ibandronate 150 mg / m/ 9 years. With a history of four implants remove because of peri-implantitis: 44; 42; 32; 34 two years before the consultation (Figure1,2).

Figure 1: Clinical appearance of osteoporotic patient stage 2: MRONJ with history of four implants remove because of peri-implantitis: 44; 42; 32; 34.

Figure 2: Tomography appearance of osteoporotic patient stage 2: MRONJ with history of four implants remove because of peri-implantitis: 44; 42; 32; 34.

Bone curettage, each 2 weeks with the aim of achieving remission of the necrotic lesion. The patient had presented pathological fracture. Diagnosis of certainty: MRONJ clinical stage 3.  The patient reported that he had used his lower complete prosthesis with ball attached system and a complete denture since MRONJ manifested himself. Clinical doctor requested an inter-consultation, since he had a frank fracture in his body mass.

Figure 3: Tomography pathological fracture jaw in osteoporotic patient Stage 3 MRONJ.

Antiseptic washes were started with 0.12% Chlorhexidine, 10% PovidoneIodo and 0.05% Rifamycin, alternating them monthly in order to produce the reflux of the inflammatory content, opportunely accompanied with antibiotic therapy: Amoxicillin 500 mg + clavulanic acid 125 mg each 8 hours for 7 days, talking with the treating doctor, accompanying your two systemic clinical exacerbations (lymphadenopathy, fever, tumor).

The clinical lesion of MRONJ was treated with titanium fixation and had been removed necrotic bone sequestration, reconfirming its diagnosis with the support of the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy. His soft tissues were impossible to recovered, necrotic bone returns surrounded fixation screws in osteosynthesis plates presenting recurrences clinical and / or radiological MRONJ lesions in four months. Prosthetic rehabilitation was indicated indeed on the lesion in order to improve his occlusion.

Oncology Patient

Male patient, resident in CABA, 69 years, history of kidney AC: malignant pulmonary and liver hypercalcemia, under treatment with DENOSUMAB 60mg / ml /20 days, with previous prescription of Zoledronic acid 4mg / 1 month (Figure 4).


Figure 4: Clinical Stage 2 in oncology patient showing MRONJ.

He was presented with panoramic X-ray showing a radiolucent image, painless, suppurating without systemic compromise with frank over contaminated bone exposure. Injury that started after tooth extraction 37 with 6 months of evolution corresponding MRONJ stage 2, with pathological stimulation with the Lower Dental Nerve despite its proximity and pathological jaw fracture because of excessive surgery toilets.  Necrotic bone expanded because of surgery manipulation was few weeks later and nowadays corresponding MRONJ stage 3 (Figure 5,6).

Figure 5: Panoramic X ray showing Stage 3 MRONJ in oncology patient.