An Extreme Pan-Biventricular Infantile Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: About a Scarce Case

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An Extreme Pan-Biventricular Infantile Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: About a Scarce Case

   

Wael Yaakoubi*, Sana Ouali, Slim Boudiche, Fathia Mghaith, Manel Ben Hlima and Med Sami Mourali

 

Department of Cardiology, LA RABTA Hospital, Ministry of public health Tunisia

*Corresponding author: Wael Yaakoubi, Department of Cardiology, LA RABTA Hospital, Ministry of public health Tunisia

Citation: Yaakoubi W, Ouali S, Boudiche S, Mghaith F, Hlima MB, Mourali SM. (2022) An Extreme Pan-Biventricular Infantile Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: About A Scarce Case. AdvClinMedRes. 3(3):1-4.

Received: June  21,  2022 | Published: July 11, 2022

Copyright© 2022 by Yaakoubi W. All rights reserved. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.52793/ACMR.2022.3(2)-33

Abstract

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the common cardiomyopathies in cardiology practice known by a characteristic involvement of the left ventricle. We report a rare and intriguing case of severe HCM with right ventricle involvement in a child.

Abbreviation

HCM: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; DCM: dilated cardiomyopathy; ECG: electrocardiogram; SAM:  Systolic anterior motion; TM: Time Motion.

Keywords

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Infant; Right ventricle.

Introduction

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathies in children cover a much greater semiological, sonographic and etiological diversity than that of adults. In pediatrics, emphasis should be placed on etiological investigation. These patients must be cared for in highly specialized centers with expertise not only in cardiopediatrics but also in metabolic pediatrics and genetics.

Case

A 12-year-old child in school, an only son, was hospitalized in our department for exploration of fatigue associated with increasing dyspnea on exertion. During the interrogation there was no notion of sudden death in the family at a young age. On examination his BP was 11/7 cm Hg with a regular pulse of 70bpm. The patient had no craniofacial malformation, skin pigmentation or visceromegaly. There was a mid-thoracic systolic murmur of 4/6. The ECG showed a regular sinus rhythm with electrical hypertrophy of the left ventricle (LV). Echocardiography showed, in addition to a very diffusely hypertrophied left ventricle with an indexed LV mass of 180 g/m2 and a thickness of the interventricular septum of 48 mm (figure 1), a right ventricle also hypertrophied with a thickness of its wall free that exceeds 10 mm The left atrium was moderately dilated at 38 ml/m2. The cavity of the left ventricle was reduced to a small opening in the shape of a banana due to the phenomenal hypertrophy of the walls. In TM mode the patient had a systolic anterior motion (SAM) without mid-systolic collapse of the aortic valve (figure 2). On Doppler, there was a maximum spontaneous left intraventricular gradient of 100 mm Hg (figure 3). Based on the echocardiography data, we concluded that there was pan-bi-ventricular obstructive HCM. The patient was put on metoprolol and isoptine but he kept the intra-LV gradient high. Her 24-hour rhythm holter showed flaps of unsustained ventricular tachycardias. A myomectomy with defibrillator implantation was offered to the student's parent but refused. We were satisfied with medical treatment, implantation of a defibrillator and regular clinical/telemetric follow-up which has so far been without any particular events. As part of an integral care of our patient, a genetic, metabolic and echocardiographic investigation of the patient and his family was carried out but the results remained negative (Figure 1-3).

Figure 1: Heavily thickened LV.