Self-Assembling Property of Graphene Derivates Chemico-Physical and Toxicological Implications
Luisetto Mauro1*, Khaled E2, Gamal A Hamid3, Tarro G4, Nili B Ahmadabadi5, Cabianca L6 and Oleg Yurevich Latyshev7
1IMA academy Marijnskaya, Professorship in Toxicology and Pharmacology, Chemical Technology and Chemical Industry Branch Science Branch Italy, Italy
2Professor, Department of Chemistry, Libya Physical Chemistry, University of Benghazi, Libya
3Professor Hematology Oncology, University of Aden, Yemen
4President of the T & L de Beaumont Bonelli Foundation for Cancer Research, Naples Italy
5Nano Drug Delivery, (a Product Development Firm), United States
6Bio-Medical Laboratory Turin Italy Citta’ della Salute, Italy
7IMA academy President, Italy
*Corresponding author: Luisetto Mauro, IMA academy Marijnskaya, Professorship in Toxicology and Pharmacology, Chemical Technology and Chemical Industry Branch Science Branch Italy, Italy.
Citation: Mauro L, Khaled E, Hamid GA, Tarro G, Ahmadabadi NB, et al. (2022) Self-Assembling Property of Graphene Derivates Chemico-Physical and Toxicological Implications. Genesis J Surg Med. 1(2):1-19.
Received: October 6, 2022 | Published: October 21, 2022
Copyright© 2022 by Mauro L, et al. All rights reserved. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This work start after seeing an recent open letter for transparency related production an quality control technique of mRNA vaccine first signed by Tarro G, Luisetto M and Monsellato ML and an editorial recognized by IMA Marijnskaya academy: graphene and derivates: physico-chemical and toxicology properties in the mRNA vaccine manufacturing strategy Needed specific proof of absence for the regulatory aspects (accepted for publication). Other relevant evidences comes from the work of Giovannini et al related DARKFIED microscope assay of the blood of 1086 symptomatic subjects after vaccination with two types of mRNA vaccine of great interest on this field the work of P Campra and Young RO, Young Me Lee or Ki-Yeob J. Aim of this work is to investigate the self-autoassembly properties of graphene and derivates in order to find relationship in some biotechnological application like mRNA vaccine. After a review part an experimental hypotesys project will be submitted to the researcher to produce a global conclusion. The recent evidences published in last period induced the idea to more deeply study this properties for The clinico-toxicological aspects involved.
Self-assempling; Graphene; Graphene GO; Chemico-physicial property; Toxicology clinical effect; Biopharmaceuticals; mRNA vaccine
Related various and recent evidence P Campra, Young RO ,Young Me Lee , Ki-Yeob J, Giovannini, et al. and review works Luisetto M, Tarro G it is interesting to observe the self-assembling properties of graphene and its derivates and their implications in clinico-oncological and toxicological field. The characteristic pattern of this innovative material used in many biotechnological applications related To their specific chemico-physical properties are reported in various relevant literature As reported in article “Bio-pharmaceutical manufacturing large scale production process: The graphene-derivates role and m RNA vaccine”. “Used in many bio-medical and other fields like bio-sensors, in water purifing, to remove heavy metals procedure, in diagnostic field but also in extraction, purifying DNA, RNA and other bio molecule, carrier, adiuvant, antibacterial and other biological and industrial use”. In literature it is also possible to see in example.
New Graphene-Based Material Self-Assembles into Vascular Structures, 19 March 2020
“Self-assembly is the process by which multiple components spontaneously organize into larger, well- defined structures. Biological-systems rely on this process to controllably assemble molecular building blocks into complex and functional- materials exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to grow, replicate and perform robust functions. "There is a relevant great interest to develop materials and fabrication processes that emulate those from nature. The ability to build robust functional materials and devices through the self-assembly of molecular components has until now been limited," said team member Yuan hao Wu, who is also at the University of Nottingham - Queen M University London. "This research introduces a new method to integrate proteins with graphene oxide G.O. by self-assembly in a way that can be easily integrated with additive manufacturing to easily fabricate various bio fluidic devices that allow us to replicate key parts of human tissues and organs in the lab".
Figure n1: Color online) Schematic depicting 2 undoped and un-strained freely suspended graphene layers separated by a finite distance (D).
Figure n2: Hexgonal Lattice of Carbons.
Van der Waals Force: a Dominant Factor for Reactivity of Grapheme
Reactivity control of the graphene is an important problem because chemical fictionalization can modulate graphene's unique mechanical, optical, and the electronic properties. Using systematic optical research studies, we demonstrate that van der Waals VDW interaction is the dominant factor for the chemical reactivity of graphene on 2-dimensional (2D) hetero- structures. A significant enhancement in chemical stability of graphene is obtained by replacing the common SiO2 substrate with 2D crystals such as an additional graphene layer, WS2, MoS2, or h-BN. Our theoretical/experimental results show that its origin is a strong van der Waals VDW interaction between graphene layer and the 2D substrate. This results in a high resistive force on the graphene to-ward geometric lattice deformation. We demonstrate that chemical- reactivity of the graphene can be controlled by the relative lattice orientation with respect to the substrates and thus can be used for a wide range of applications including hydrogen storage”.
Self-assembly is a process- mechanims by which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern like a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction. When the constitutive components are molecules, the process is named molecular self-assembly. Regarding the self-assembly process in nanoscience it is possible to see.
Figure n3: Conceptual scheme indicating the main stages of the self-assembly process in nanoscience.
Related Graphene Materials
Self-Assembly of organic nano materials and bio materials: the bottom-up approach for functional nanostructures formation and advanced applications “Graphene self-assembly GSA represents a promising and interesting method for micro electronic applications. Recently in last years, graphene micro-patterns (consisting of crossed stripe of single- and 2-layer graphene) have been fabricated by means of the (evaporation-induced) self-assembly technique”
Chinese Chemical Letters
Self-assembly of graphene oxide G.O. nano-sheets in t-butanol/water medium under gamma-ray radiation. “The research works on the properties of graphene oxide (G.O.) in various media has become one of the hottest topics since GO is now the main- principal raw material for graphene-based advanced materials. In this research work, the γ-ray radiation chemistry effect of GO nano-sheets and their self-aggregation behavior in t-butanol/water medium were investigated. The results show that G.O. nano-sheets are reduced and hydroxy-alkylated simultaneously by alcohol free radicals produced by the radiolysis of t-butanol/water solution under γ-ray radiation. The radiation-modified G.O. nano-sheets will self-assemble into a self-standing graphene hydro gel when the pH of solution is lower than 2. A hydroxyl-functionalized free-standing graphene-aerogel is further obtained simply by freeze-drying. This work provides not only a general self-assembly SA mechanism of G.O. nano-sheets in strong acidic alcohol/water media under a high energy radiation, but also a facile and economical preparation method for hydroxy-alkylated graphene-based aerogel.”
Figure n4: Modified grapheme aerogel.
Understanding self-assembly, colloidal behavior and rheological properties of graphene derivatives for high-performance super capacitor Fabrication “Graphene derivatives, like graphene oxide-(G.O.) and reduced graphene oxide (R.G.O.), have been gerat- widely used as promising 2-dimensional nano-scale building blocks due to their interesting properties, cost-effective production, and a good processability. Understanding the intrinsic self-assembling, colloidal, and rheological features of the graphene derivatives is of critical importance to establish the formation- structure-property relationship of graphene-based materials.”
Graphene oxide containing self-assembling peptide hybrid hydrogels as a potential 3D injectable cell delivery platform for intervertebral disc repair applications. “In this reserach study we explore the use of graphene oxide (G.O.) as- like nano-filler for the reinforcement of FEFK.FEFK (β-sheet forming self-assembling peptide) hydrogels. Our results obtained confirm the presence of a strong interactions between FEFK-FEFK and G.O. flakes with the peptide coating and forming short thin fibrils on the surface of the flakes. These strong interactions were found to affect the bulk properties of hybrid hydro gels. At the pH 4 value electrostatic interactions between peptide fibres and the peptide-coated G.O. flakes are thought to govern the final bulk- properties of the hydro-gels while at pH 7, after conditioning with the cell culture -media, electrostatic- interactions are removed leaving the hydro-phobic interactions to govern hydro gel final properties. The GO-F820 hybrid hydro gel, with mechanical properties similar to the NP, was shown to promote an high cell- viability and retained cell metabolic activity in 3D over the 7 days of culture and shown to harbour significant potential as an
injectable-hydrogel scaffold for the in-vivo delivery of NP- cells.”